Spirulina and the Science Behind the Benefits

Spirulina is used in Spirulina Wafers for Horses, Longevity for Dogs, and Spirulina Tablets for People.

Related Websites & Selected Studies Found on Each

1) Cancer Decisions. http://cancerdecisions.com

Hirahashi T et al. Activation of the human innate immune system by Spirulina: augmentation of interferon production and NK cytoxity by oral administration of hot water extract of Spirulina platensis. Int Immunopharmacol 2002;2:423-34.

Dasgupta T et al. Chemomodulation of carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant profiles and skin and forestomach papillomagenesis by Spirulina platensis. Mol Cell Biochem 2001;226:27-38.

Zhang HQ et al. Chemo- and radio-protective effects of polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis on hemopoietic system of mice and dogs. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2001;22:1121-4.

Mathew B et al. Evaluation of chemoprovention of oral cancer with Spirulina fusiformis. Nutr Cancer.1995;24:197-202.

National Cancer Institute. Lip and oral cavity cancer (PDQ): treatment. http://www.cancer.gov/cancer_information/ doc_pdq.aspx?version+1&summaryid=208_02840

2) M.D. Anderson Cancer Center.

Hernandez-Corona A, Nieves I, Meckes M, Chamorro G, Barron BL. Antiviral activity of Spirulina maxima against herpes simplex virus type 2. Antiviral Res. 2002 Dec;56(3):279-85.

Jensen GS, Ginsberg DI, Drapeau C. Blue-green algae as an immuno-enhancer and biomodulator. J Amer Nutraceut Assoc 2001; 3(4):24-30.

Mani UV, Desai S, Iyer U. Studies on the long-term effect of spirulina supplementation on serum lipid profile and glycated proteins in NIDDM patients. J Nutraceut 2000;(3):25-32.

Romay C, Armesto J, Remirez D, et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue-green algae. Inflamm Res 1998;47(1):36-41.

Yang, HN, Lee EH, Kim HM. Spirulina platensis inhibits anaphylactic reaction. Life Sci 1997;61(13):1237-1244.

3) Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. http://www.mskcc.org

Hayashi T, et al. Calcium spirulan, an inhibibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green algae Spirulina platensis. J Nat Prod 1996;59:83-7.

Draisci R, et al. Identification of anatoxins in blue-green algae food supplements using liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry. Food Addit contam 2001;18:525-31.

Premkumar K. et al. Effect of Spirulina fusiformis on cyclopho-phamide and mitomycin-C induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice. Fitoerapi 2001;72:906-11.

4) Spirulina Health Library. http://www.spirulina.com

a) Anti-Cancer Studies:
Babu, M et al. Evaluation of chemoprevention of oral cancer with spirulina. 1995. Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 24, No. 2, 197-202.

Lisheng, et al. Inhibitive effect and mechanism of polysaccharide of spirulina on transplanted tumor cells in mice. 1991. Marine Sciences, Qingdao, N.5. 33-38.


Schwartz, et al. Inhibition of experimental oral carcinogenesis by topical beta carotene. 1986. Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Carcinogenesis, May 1986 7(5) 711-715.

Schwartz, J. G. Shklar, et al. Prevention of experimental oral cancer by extracts of spirulina-dunaliella algae. 1988. Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Nutrition and Cancer 11, 127-134.

b) Beta Carotene, Cancer Prevention & Health Improvement:
Annapurna, V. Bioavailability of spirulina carotenes in preschool children. 1991. National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India. J. Clin. Biochem Nutrition. 10 145-151.

Seshadri, CV. Large scale nutritional supplementation with spirulina alga. 1993. All India Coordinated Project on Spirulina. Shri AMM Murugappa Chettier Research Center (MCRC).

c) Cholesterol Reduction:
Becker, E. W., et al. Clinical and biochemical evaluations of spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity. Inst. Chem. Pfanz. Nutrition Reports Int'l, vol. 33, No. 4, 565.

Kato, T., K. Takemoto. Effects of spirulina on hypercholesterolemia and fatty liver in rats. 1984. Saitama Medical College. Japan Nutr. Foods Assoc. Journal. 37:323.

Nayaka, N et al. Cholesterol lowering effect of spirulina. 1988. Tokai univ. Pub. in Nutrition Reports Int'l, vol. 37, No. 6, 1329-1337.

5) University of Maryland Medical Center. http://www.umm.edu

Gonzalez R, Rodriguez S, Romay c. et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of phycocyanin extract in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Pharmacol Res. 1999;39:1055-1059.

Gorban EM, Orynchak MA, Virstiuk NG, Kuprash LP, Panteleimonov TM, Sharabura LB. [Clinical and experimental study of spirulina efficacy in chronic liver diseases.] lik Sprava. 2000(6):89-83.

Hayashi K, Hayashi T, Kojima I. A natural sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan, isolated from Spirulina platensis: in vitro and ex vivo evaluation of anti-herpes simplex virus and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1996;12:1463-1471.

Kapoor R, Mehtu U. Iron status and growth of rats fed different dietary iron sources. Plan Foods Hum Nutr. 1993;44(1):29-34.

Kim HM, Lee EH, Cho HH, Moon YH. Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in rats by spirulina. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998;55(7):1071-1076.

Mathew B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair PP, et al. Evaluation of chemoprevention of oral cancer with Spirulina fusiformis. Nutr Cancer. 1995;24:197-202.

Romay C, Armesto J Remirez D, Gonzalez R, Ledon N, Garcia I. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue-green algae. Inflamm Res. 1998;47:36-41.

Torres-Duran PV, Miranda-Zamora R, Paredes-Carbajal MC, Mascher D, Ble-Castillo J, Diaz-Zagoya JC, Juarez Oropeza MA. Studies on the preventative effect of Spirulina maxima on fatty liver development induced by carbon tetrachloride, in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64(2):141-147.